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Intelligent Design Debate: In-Text Citations

Verbs in Signal Phrases

Signal phrases let your reader know that you are quoting or summarizing from another source.

Examples:

The experts acknowledge ...

Studies show ... 
According to ...

Smith adds ...
Jones argues

... grants
 
... asserts 
... comments 
... 
illustrates 
... admits
... agrees that 
... implies
... insists 
... observes 
... compares 
... notes
... confirms ... contends 
... declares 
... points out 
... reasons ... refutes 
... denies 

Smith disputes ...

Jones rejects ...

White reports ...
Smith responds ...
Thomson emphasizes ...
Johnson endorses ...
suggests ...
thinks ...
writes ...

Citing Your Sources

Quoting, Paraphrasing & Summarizing

Quoting Sources

When you quote a source, you include the author's exact words in your text. Use "quotation marks" around the author's words. Include signal phrases and an in-text citation to show where the quote is from.

Paraphrasing & Summarizing Sources

When you paraphrase or summarize a source, you restate the source's ideas in your own words and sentence structure. Select what is relevant to your topic, and restate only that. Changing only a few words is not sufficient in paraphrasing/ summarizing. Instead, you need to completely rephrase the author's ideas in your own words. You do not need to use quotation marks.

Always use in-text citations when you paraphrase or summarize, to let the reader know that the information comes from another source. Continue to use signal phrases as well.